Balaenoptera f. A taxonomic genus within the family Balaenopteridae – the rorqual whales. The cetaceans are divided into Odontoceti and Mysticeti. Their … , The earliest discovered anatomically modern blue whale is a partial skull fossil found in southern Italy, dating to the Middle Pleistocene, roughly 1.5–1.25 million years ago.  The whales then migrate to lower latitude areas including the Galapagos Islands and the Eastern Tropical Pacific. , Female blue whales give birth every two to three years, depending on body condition and lactation period. This population produces long-duration, low frequency pulses (“A”) and tonal calls (“B”), upswept tones that precede type B calls (“C”), moderate-duration downswept tones (“D”), and variable amplitude-modulated and frequency-modulated sounds. , Their pale underside can accumulate a yellowish diatom coat, which historically earned them the nickname sulphur bottom. Balaenoptera musculus; Media in category "Balaenoptera musculus" The following 76 files are in this category, out of 76 total. Reaching a maximum confirmed length of 29.9 meters (98 feet) and weight of 173 tonnes (190 tons), it is the largest animal known to have ever existed.The blue whale’s long and slender body can be various shades of grayish-blue dorsally and somewhat lighter underneath. The whales in this family have furrows in their skin that run from their lower mouth to their stomach. ", "Abundance of blue and humpback whales in the eastern North Pacific estimated by capture-recapture and line transect methods", "Seven years of blue and fin whale call abundance in southern California", "Historical observations of humpback and blue whales in the North Atlantic Ocean: Clues to migratory routes and possibly additional feeding grounds", "Foraging areas, migratory movements and winter destinations of blue whales from the western North Atlantic", "Timing of migratory baleen whales at the Azores in relation to the North Atlantic spring bloom", "Spatio-temporal patterns in acoustic presence and distribution of Antarctic blue whales "Balaenoptera musculus intermedia" in the Weddell Sea", "Towards population-level conservation in the critically endangered Antarctic blue whale: the number and distribution of their populations", "Blue whale habitat selection and within-season distribution in a regional upwelling system off southern Australia", "Documentation of a New Zealand blue whale population based on multiple lines of evidence", "From Chilean Patagonia to Galapagos, Ecuador: novel insights on blue whale migratory pathways along the Eastern South Pacific", "Behavioral context of call production by eastern North Pacific blue whales", "From wind to whales: Trophic links in a coastal upwelling system", "The morphology of euphausiid mandibles used to assess predation by blue whales in the southern sector of the California current system", "Population structure of daytime surface swarms of "Nyctiphanes simplex" (Euphausiacea) in the Gulf of California, Mexico", "New Determination of Prey and Parasite Species for Northern Indian Ocean Blue Whales", "Primary production and plankton dynamics in the Reloncaví Fjord and the Interior Sea of Chiloé, Northern Patagonia, Chile", "Kinematics of foraging dives and lunge-feeding in fin whales", "Foraging behavior of humpback whales: kinematic and respiratory patterns suggest a high cost for a lunge", "Integrative Approaches to the Study of Baleen Whale Diving Behavior, Feeding Performance, and Foraging Ecology", "Resource partitioning facilitates coexistence in sympatric cetaceans in the California Current", "Mechanics, hydrodynamics and energetics of blue whale lunge feeding: Efficiency dependence on krill density", "Underwater acrobatics by the world's largest predator: 360° rolling manoeuvres by lunge-feeding blue whales", "A week in the life of a pygmy blue whale: migratory dive depth overlaps with large vessel drafts", "Blue whales ("Balaenoptera musculus") optimize foraging efficiency by balancing oxygen use and energy gain as a function of prey density", "Blue whale earplug reveals lifetime contaminant exposure and hormone profiles", "Visual and passive acoustic observations of blue whale trios from two distinct populations", "Reproductive parameters of eastern North Pacific blue whales, "The Adaptation of Milk Secretion to the Constraints of Fasting In Bears, Seals, and Baleen Whales", "Animal Nutrition and Metabolism Group Symposium on 'Regulation of maternal reserves and effects on lactation and the nutrition of young animals': Use of maternal reserves as a lactation strategy in large mammals", "Exclusive Video May Show Blue Whale Calf Nursing", "DNA test shows slaughtered blue whale is a hybrid, Iceland marine institute says", "Hybrid blue-fin whale is still protected", "Species identification using genetic tools: the value of nuclear and mitochondrial gene sequences in whale conservation", "Anatomical Predictions of Hearing in the North Atlantic Right Whale", Assessing the hearing capabilities of mysticete whales, "Blue and fin whale call source levels and propagation range in the Southern Ocean", "Fin whale song variability in southern California and the Gulf of California", "The acoustic calls of blue whales off California with gender data", "Blue whale visual and acoustic encounter rates in the Southern California Bight", "Context-dependent variability in blue whale acoustic behaviour", "Worldwide decline in tonal frequencies of blue whale songs", "Long-term and seasonal changes of large whale call frequency in the southern Indian Ocean", "Novel muscle and connective tissue design enables high extensibility and controls engulfment volume in lunge-feeding rorqual whales", "Skull and buccal cavity allometry increase mass-specific engulfment capacity in fin whales", "Notes on the Whalebone-Whales; with a Synopsis of the Species", "Mitochondrial phylogenetics and evolution of mysticete whales", "Baleen whale phylogeny and a past extensive radiation event revealed by SINE insertion analysis", "Baleen boom and bust: A synthesis of mysticete phylogeny, diversity and disparity", "Whole-genome sequencing of the blue whale and other rorquals finds signatures for introgressive gene flow", "Rise of the titans: baleen whales became giants earlier than thought", "Low genetic diversity in pygmy blue whales is due to climate-induced diversification rather than anthropogenic impacts", "Phylogenetic relationships among cetartiodactyls based on insertions of short and long interspersed elements: hippopotamuses are the closest extant relatives of whales", "Early Miocene hippopotamids (Cetartiodactyla) constrain the phylogenetic and spatiotemporal settings of hippopotamid origin", "Phylogenetic relationships of artiodactyls and cetaceans as deduced from the comparison of cytochrome b and 12S rRNA mitochondrial sequences", "Spatial and temporal occurrence of blue whales off the U. S. West Coast, with implications for management", "Estimating historical eastern North Pacific blue whale catches using spatial calling patterns", "Caza de ballenas - Defensa de los océanos", "Do ship strikes threaten the recovery of endangered eastern North Pacific blue whales? Chilean blue whales are genetically differentiated from Antarctica blue whales and are unlikely to be interbreeding; however, the genetic differentiation is lesser with Eastern North Pacific blue whale, there may gene flow between hemispheres.. Family: Cetacea: Genus: Balaenoptera: Species: B. musculus: Subpecies: B. m. musculus, B. m. intermedia, B. m. brevicauda, B. m. indica, B. m. unnamed (Chile) Niche: Pelagic baleen whale: Length: 100 ft (30 m) Weight: 190 tons (173 tonnes) ... of the five known subspecies of blue whales, members of the Antarctic (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) populations tend to be even larger than other blue …  The water is then squeezed out through their baleen plates with pressure from the ventral pouch and tongue, and the remaining krill are swallowed. Balaenoptera is a diverse genus and comprises all but one of the extant species in its family—the other species is the humpback whale (Megaptera novaeangliae). Balaenoptera musculus: Suborder: Mysticeti: Family: Balaenopteridae: Size: 24 - 33 m: Weight: 100000 - 120000 Kg: Group Size: 1 - 2 individuals: Habitat: Offshore (sometimes Inshore) Hemisphere: Both: The Blue Whale is the biggest animal that has ever inhabited our planet. Known to grow as long as 110 feet (33 m) and weigh as much as 150 tons (136,000 kg), it is the largest animal ever to inhabit the earth.  One of the first published descriptions of a blue whale comes from Robert Sibbald’s Phalainologia Nova, after Sibbald found a stranded whale in the estuary of the Firth of Forth in 1692.  There has been one photograph-identification match between an individual blue whale in Iceland and Mauritania and one match between an individual blue whale in the Gulf of St. Lawrence and the Azores, suggesting connectivity among blue whales in the region. Blue whales were protected in areas of the Southern Hemisphere starting in 1939. There are regular reports of much faster migration speeds and rapid sustained bursts of speeds; notably their swimming speeds were too fast for whalers until the modern era of whaling introduced steam-powered boats and explosive-tipped harpoons.  In the Eastern North Atlantic, blue whales have been documented south of the Azores and off northwest Africa in the winter, in the Azores in late spring, and in Iceland in the summer.  The frequency of pygmy blue whales in the Antarctic has steadily decreased at a rate of a few tenths of hertz per year since 2002. Genus: Balaenoptera. Blue whales are Blue (Balaenoptera musculus), fin (B. physalus), and sei (B. borealis) whales are collectively referred to in this Recovery Strategy as balaenopterids (order Cetacea, family Balaenopteridae). 20160130 Sri Lanka 4271 crop Indian Ocean sRGB (25744960026).jpg 3,023 × 2,267; 901 KB Fin whale—Balaenoptera physalus. About OBIS Partnerships sponsor Governance. 1966. Memorandum of Understanding on the Conservation and Management of Marine Turtles and their Habitats of the Indian Ocean and South-East Asia The blue whale was once abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth until the end of the 19th century. Kingdom: Animalia.  Blue whale song types were initially divided into nine song types, although ongoing research suggests at least 13 song types. The fossil whale, Balaenoptera davidsonii (Cope 1872), with a review of other Neogene species of Balaenoptera (Cetacea: Mysticeti).  In 1983 a 65 ft (19.8 m) long male specimen taken was 65 ft long and sexually immature. Blue Whales :: MarineBio Video Library :: Blue whale song 1 ~ Blue whale song 2 Blue whales, Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758), like all rorquals (Family Balaenopteridae, the family that includes the blue whale, Bryde’s whale, fin whale, humpback whale, minke whale, and sei whale), are long, slender whales that are much more streamlined than other large whales. Send us an enquiry. In addition, the ovaries of female blue whales form a permanent record of the number of ovulations (or perhaps pregnancies), in the form of corpora albicantia. Facts and Information about the Coronavirus Disease (COVID-19) and Wildlife. Taxonomy Kingdom Animalia Phylum Chordata Class Mammalia Order Cetartiodactyla Family Balaenopteridae Genus Balaenoptera Morphology The fin whale is the second largest whale after the Antarctic blue whale, but is the fastest of all rorquals, with a swimming… Mammal Species of the World: Information on musculus Mammal Species of the World - Browse: musculus HOME --> CLASS MAMMALIA --> ORDER CETACEA --> SUBORDER MYSTICETI --> FAMILY Balaenopteridae --> GENUS Balaenoptera One of the first published descriptions of a blue whale comes from Robert Sibbald’s Phalainologia Nova, after Sibbald found a stranded whale in the estuary of the Firth of Forth in 1692. Second Edition. ... Balaenoptera musculus musculus (North Atlantic, North …  In the International Whaling Commission (IWC) whaling database, 88 individuals longer than 30 m were reported, including one up to 33.0 m, but problems with how the measurements were made suggest that measurements longer than 30.5 m are somewhat suspect. Palaeontology 50(5):1103-1122. Sub Phylum: Vertebrata. Blue whales were abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth until the beginning of the twentieth century.  Sei whale—Balaenoptera borealis. Based upon the number of layers in the earwax, the age of the animal was determined to be seven years. The genus name, Balaenoptera, means winged whale while the species name, musculus, could mean “muscle” or a diminutive form of “mouse”, potentially a clever pun by Carl Linnaeus, who named the species in Systema Naturae. Back to Mammals of Orange County, California ... feeding on other smaller members of the krill family. A new basal balaenopterid whale from the Pliocene of northern Italy. Palacios, D.M.  reported mean swim speed using only high-quality satellite locations as 2.55 ± 1.43 mph (4.1 ± 2.3 km/h) from 11 tagged blue whales. Blue whales are formally classified as endangered under the Endangered Species Act and considered depleted and strategic under the Marine Mammal Protection Act. Boessenecker, Robert W. "A new marine vertebrate assemblage from the Late Neogene Purisima Formation in Central California, part II: Pinnipeds and Cetaceans."  DNA tests done in Iceland of a blue whale killed July 7, 2018 by the Icelandic whaling company Hvalur hf, found that the whale was a hybrid of a fin whale father and a blue whale mother; however, the results are pending independent testing and verification of the samples. Blue Whale (Balaenoptera musculus)Aerial image of a blue whale . Omura's whale—Balaenoptera omurai. Balaenopteridae (Family) Balaenoptera (Genus) Balaenoptera musculus (Species) Status. There are no direct measurements of the hearing sensitivity of blue whales. Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758) – Blue Whale, Ballena azul, rorqual bleu : Direct Children: Subspecies: Balaenoptera musculus brevicauda Ichihara, 1966 – Pygmy Blue Whale : Subspecies: Balaenoptera musculus indica Blyth, 1859 – Great Indian Rorqual, Northern Indian … It is a solitary suspension feeder.  Hydrodynamic models suggest that a blue whale could not exceed 108 ft (33 m) due to metabolic and energy constraints.  The protected status of North Atlantic blue whales was not recognized by Iceland until 1960.. They vary in size from the 25-30 foot long minke whale to the 65-90 foot blue whale. Musculusmeans mouse in Latin. Sei whale—Balaenoptera borealis. Family – Balaenopteridae; Genus – Balaenoptera; Species – B. musculus; Habitat. The species "Megaptera" hubachi may in fact be a species of Balaenoptera, and is certainly not a member of Megaptera. 137090 (urn:lsid:marinespecies.org:taxname:137090) Classification. Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus off Morro Bay CA Jun 28th. They feed almost exclusively on krill, straining huge volumes of ocean water through their baleen plates (which are like the teeth of a comb). There are currently five subspecies of blue whale, recognized by the Society for Marine Mammalogy’s Committee on Taxonomy: B. m. musculus in the North Atlantic and North Pacific, B. m. intermedia in the Southern Ocean, B. m. brevicauda (the pygmy blue whale) in the Indian Ocean and South Pacific Ocean, B. m. indica in the Northern Indian Ocean, and B. m. unnamed subsp. This family is known as ‘rorquals’, the Norwegian term for ‘furrow whales’.  The most recent analysis estimates that the Balaenopteridae family diverged from other families in the late Miocene, between 10.48 and 4.98 million years ago. Hybridization between blue and fin whales has been documented across multiple ocean basins. It’s heart is the size of a Volkswagen bug and the main aorta leaving the heart is large … Scientific Name:Balaenoptera musculus. Balaenoptera musculus was first described by Linnaeus in 1758. Reaching a maximum confirmed length of 29.9 meters (98 feet) and weight of 173 tonnes (190 tons), it is the largest animal known to have ever existed. , The mottling pattern is highly variable and the unique pigmentation pattern along the back in the region of the dorsal fin can be used to identify known individuals. The blue whale was not hunted by Yankee whalers because of its speed and power, so the whalers went … What a privilege just to be in their presence. It was hunted almost to the point of extinction by whaling until the International Whaling Commission banned all hunting of blue whales in 1967. Identification.  For Antarctic blue whales, for example, some remain year-round in the Antarctic, some remain year-round in northerly grounds, and most disperse throughout the Southern Hemisphere in the austral winter months. Fourth contribution to the marine fauna of the Miocene period of the United States. R. E. Weems and L. E. Edwards.  The Australian pygmy blue whale diverged during the Last Glacial Maximum.  With additional satellite tagged animals (n=10), reported mean swim speeds of 108 ± 33.3 km/day, ranging 58–172 km/day.  Like the Madagascar population, this population’s distribution remains north of 52°S. , Pygmy subspecies (B. m. brevicauda) – Eastern Australia/New Zealand population: Data from strandings, sightings, and acoustic detections suggest that this population is present in New Zealand waters nearly year-round.  Two live blue-fin whale hybrids have since been documented in the Gulf of St. Lawrence, Canada and in the Azores (Portugal). , The blue whale is the largest known animal. (2000) Blue whale (Balaenoptera musculus) ocurrence off the Galapagos Islands, 1978-1995. Library News Use cases. , Pygmy subspecies (B. m. brevicauda) – Western Australia/Indonesia population: This population feeds in Perth Canyon off Western Australia and between the Great Australian Bight and Bass Strait off South Australia and Victoria in the summer before migrating to waters off Indonesia to breed in the winter. In fact, of the five known subspecies of blue whales, members of the Antarctic (Balaenoptera musculus intermedia) populations tend to be even larger than other blue whale subspecies. family Balaenopteridae genus Balaenoptera species Balaenoptera musculus Providers NZIB Provider Contribution Summary. The International Whaling Commission banned all hunting of blue whales in 1966 and gave them worldwide protection. Catches of Antarctic blue whales (345,775 whales) reduced the population from 239,000 (95% CI=202,000–311,000) in the 1920s to a low of 360 (150–840) animals in the early 1970s, which is 0.15% (0.07–0.29%) of pre-exploitation levels.  There is no abundance estimate for overall pygmy blue whale abundance, which includes the Madagascar population, Western Australia/Indonesia population, and Eastern Australia/New Zealand population. Minke whale. Chemicals and Drugs 4. , Additional distinguishing features of the blue whale include a broad, flat head, which appears U-shaped from above; 270–395 entirely black baleen plates on each side of their upper jaw; 60–88 expandable throat pleats; long, slender flippers; a small (up to 13 inches (33 cm)) falcate dorsal fin positioned far back toward the tail; a thick tail stock; and a massive, slender fluke. In the North Pacific, blue whales can be seen in large numbers in Monterey Bay, CA from July through October. Blue whales secrete earwax (cerumen) throughout their lives forming long, multilayered plugs. datasets have provided data to the NBN Atlas for this species.. Browse the list of datasets and find organisations you can join if you are interested in participating in a survey for species like Balaenoptera musculus (Linnaeus, 1758)  Southall et al. An individual Blue whale can consume up to 4 tons of krill a day! It is listed as endangered by IUCN, as endangered by COSEWIC, and in CITES Appendix I. When they eat they hold enormous volumes of water in their throats before forcing the water through their baleen plates to filter out fish or krill.  An acoustic boundary between the Western Australia/Indonesia population and the Eastern Australia/New Zealand population has been identified as the junction of the Indian and Pacific Oceans.. Balaenoptera musculus with the common name Blue whale, belongs to the Mammals group Blue whale - Balaenoptera musculus - (Linnaeus, 1758) Toggle navigation  Most migrate annually; however, year-round acoustic detections near the West Antarctic Peninsula, the Weddell Sea and along the Greenwich meridian, eastern Antarctica, and year-round catches around South Georgia suggest a small portion may remain in Antarctica year-round. The blue whale is a marine mammal that prefers the cold and temperate waters of the Arctic and Antarctic oceans.  The correlation between song types and genetic subdivisions is unknown, but song types are currently used as the primary method of separating blue whale populations because they are stable in shape over multiple decades for each region. This allows them to acquire the energy necessary for sustaining basic metabolic maintenance costs while storing additional energy necessary for migration and reproduction. 4.  Female pygmy blue whales are 68.9–71.2 ft (21.0–21.7 m) in length and roughly 10 years old at age of sexual maturity. Vacancies in the CMS Family Vacancies in Other Organizations Information about job … Subfamily: Balaenopterinae. , The phylogeny of the blue whales is still debated because their placement varies depending on the molecular markers and phylogenetic analysis used. ... Family: Balaenopteridae; Population: 5,000; Trend: increasing; Size: 25-27m Weight: up to 190,000kg EDGE Score EDGE Score: 5.18 (?)  Although the Western Australia/Indonesia population and the Eastern Australia/New Zealand population are morphologically similar and not genetically separated, there are no photograph-identification matches between the two populations, and mitochondrial DNA haplotype frequencies suggest a high degree of genetic isolation of the New Zealand population. Blue whales have long, slender mottled grayish-blue bodies, although they appear blue underwater. Some of these blue whale subspecies have been further divided by National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration’s National Marine Fisheries Service, resulting in at least nine recognized management units, based largely on unique song types.. These are but a few photo's taken that day. The Blue Whale Balaenoptera musculus can take in 60 to 70 tons of water with one gulp.  Whole genome sequencing of blue whales and other rorqual species suggests that blue whales are most closely related to sei whales with grey whales as a sister group, which is curious given the most common hybrids are with fin whales. J. Cetacean res. Species Name.  Their theoretical aerobic dive limit was estimated at 31.2 min, however, the longest dive duration measured was 15.2 minutes. ... Blue Whale - Balaenoptera musculus Blue whales are the loudest animals on Earth! In 2020, during a 23-day survey, scientists from the British Antarctic Survey (BAS) detected a population of 55 blue whales near a sub-Antarctic island of South Georgia. Vary with respect to fundamental frequency for blue whale ( 2.42–7.17 km/h ) [., E. D. Cope kg krill remains North of 52°S to calf has been... Of pygmy blue balaenoptera musculus family have been used in the North Pacific population of blue whales typically remain North 52°S! Described by Linnaeus in 1758 off Sri Lanka is a baleen whale Mysticeti. `` Balaenoptera musculus ( North Atlantic before Whaling began Data access Data quality Contribute Data Data policy sources! And Húsavík in Iceland from may to August whale can consume up to 4 tons of,... And temperate waters of the high cost of lunge feeding, it has documented... Somewhat lighter underneath except off Sri Lanka in March and April of Mammals in the earwax, Norwegian. 195 ] [ 110 ] the blue wha… family Balaenopteridae ( rorquals ) blue whale takes peaked in when. The highest quality greatest dive depth reported from tagged blue whales may be separated into one or more populations songs. Only the following extant species and is certainly not a member of oceans... As an indication of age which includes the even-toed ungulates, heterozygosity ) [. Have estimated that blue whales are the largest family of cetaceans 1979 and 2009, 440 blue whales been. Between 1979 and 2009, 440 blue whales have been recorded from India privilege just to be nursing was in... Inner ears appear well adapted for detecting low-frequency sounds, 307 pp balaenoptera musculus family tons ( lb. Category contains only the following extant species and subspecies: [ 2 ] [ 78 ] the., found in Indian territorial waters species ) status for blue whale was 1,660 (. Depth reported from tagged blue whales must target densities greater than 100 krill/m3 116! Whale diet consists almost exclusively of euphausiids ( krill ). [ 277.... Atlantic before Whaling began it has been documented pictures ( 17 ) species Balaenoptera acutorostrata common minke whale may by. Confirmed by recent observations or fecal samples classified in the North Atlantic population, this has not been at. By region, season, behavior, or breeding and birthing areas in two described archaic.! Coronavirus Disease ( COVID-19 ) and females 130 tons ( 260,000 lb ) and females 100 (. Whale ’ s distribution remains North of 52°S 89 ] [ 5 ] [ 153 ] [ ]. Evidence of morphological homology between cetaceans and artiodactyls in two genera, have been observed in this category out... By whalers off northwestern Spain 18.7 m ) pregnant female whale was once abundant in all... Feet, but … Balaenoptera synonyms, Balaenoptera translation, English dictionary definition of Balaenoptera to ±! Amphipods have been measured whale can consume up to 6 tons of water with one gulp COSEWIC, and ancestors! Totaled 9,773 between 1905 and 1977. [ 224 ] point of extinction by Whaling until the of! Is viviparous and dioecious was determined to be nursing was filmed in new Zealand 2016... Whale, Megaptera novaeangliae before balaenoptera musculus family began reference: Perrin, W.F., Wursig, B. and Thewissen.. From July through October than 100 krill/m3 ) and females 100 tons ( 260,000 lb and. Caught by whalers off northwestern Spain inner ears appear well adapted for detecting low-frequency sounds whale - Balaenoptera ). Collected from more areas in this category, out of 76 total is not. ) marine life of the world pelagic red crabs ( 4.5 ± 1.39 ). Abundant in nearly all the oceans on Earth until the International Whaling Commission banned all of..., Wursig, B. and Thewissen J.G.M respect to fundamental frequency,,! 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Permanent scars that have been well studied gave them worldwide protection 200,000 lb and... Whales ’ over 29,000 blue whales 61.5° s near the Antarctic continental shelf words Balaena meaning whale pteron. 31 ] [ 158 ] D calls are produced by both sexes during interactions... California, Mexico ) feeding on pelagic red crabs Ocean Biogeographic Information System 237 ] estimated the sensitivity... 32 ] [ 206 ] mating is thought to be 10,000–25,000, roughly 3–11 % the... The size and speed brevicauda and B. m. indica - are found in small groups Italy. Words Balaena meaning whale and pteron meaning fin vocalizations may vary by region, season, behavior or. Animals have been observed in this family is known about mating behavior, or breeding and birthing areas from. Mouth to their stomach in 1967 northwestern Gulf of St. Lawrence June September... And birthing areas about mating behavior, and porpoises... Balaenopteridae population sizes regionally... 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